Islamic Philosophers

Islamic Philosophers

The list below covers entries on the major and many minor philosophers, theologians, and mystics who contributed to the development of philosophy in the Islamic world.

They cover 1400 years of Islamic philosophical tradition, with entries ranging from the early years of the faith to the modern period and every major school of thought, from classical Peripatetic philosophy to Sufi mysticism.

These entries are a springboard for understanding the role Islamic philosophers have played in shaping intellectual thought and philosophy over the centuries.

▪ Akhund Mulla Fath ‘Ali Sultan Abadi (1235 or 1240–1318/1819 or 1824–1901)
▪ ‘Abd Al-Jabbar, Qadi (c. 325–415/c. 937–1025)
▪ ‘Abdu, Muhammad (1849–1905)
▪ Abu Hanifa, Numan b. Sabit (80–150/699–767)
▪ Abu Ja‘Far Al-Ahwal, Muhammad b. al-Nu‘man (d. after 183/799)
▪ Adivar, Abdülhak Adnan (1882–1955)
▪ Afdal Al-Din (d. 610/1213)
▪ Afghani, Seyyed Jamaluddin (1838–96)
▪ Al-Ahsa’i (c. 837–after 904/1433–after 1499)
▪ Aki̇f Ersoy, Mehmet (1873–1936)
▪ Al-Aksarayi̇, Cemeleddin Muhammad (d. 791/1388)
▪ Akşemseddin, Mehmed Şemseddin ibn Hamza (792–863/1390–1459)
▪ Al-E Ahmad, Jalal (1923–69)
▪ ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib (d. 40/660)
▪ Al-Amidi, Sayf ad-Din (d. 621/1233)
▪ Al-‘Amili, Baha’ al-Din (953–1030/1547–1621)
▪ Amin, Ahmad (1886–1954)
▪ Al-‘Amiri, Abu’l Hasan Muhammad ibn Yusuf (d. 381/992)
▪ Al-Amuli, Sayyid Haydar (719–787/1319–1385)
▪ Ankaravi̇, Isma‘il b. Ahmad Rusuhiddin (d. 1041/1631)
▪ Ansari, Murtada bin Muhammad Amin (1214–81/1799–1864)
▪ Al-‘Aqqad, ‘Abbas Mahmoud (1889–1964)
▪ Arkoun Mohammed (1928–2010)
▪ As’ad Afandi of Yanya (d. 1143/1730)
▪ Al-Asamm (d. 200–1/816–17)
▪ Al-Ash‘ari, Abu’l Hasan (260–324/873–935)
▪ Al-Ashkiwari, Aqa Mirza Hashim (d. 1332 or 1333/1914 or 1915)
▪ Ashtiyani, Mirza Mahdi (1306–72/1888–1952)
▪ Al-‘Askari, Abu Hilal al-Hasan (d. late 4th century/early eleventh century)
▪ ‘Assar, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim (1302–96/1884–1975)
▪ Athir Al-Din Mufaddal Ibn ‘Umar Al-Abhari (c. 597–663/1200–64)
▪ Atif Efendi, Iskilipli (1876–1926)
▪ ‘Attar (c. 1117–1231)
▪ Azraf, Dewan Muhammad (1906–99)
▪ Babanzade, Ahmed Naim (1289–1353/1872–1934)
▪ Badakhshani, Sayyid Suhrab Wali (d. after 856/1452)
▪ Badawi, ‘Abd al-Rahman (1917–2002)
▪ Al-Baghdadi, ‘Abd al-Latif (557–629/1162–1231)
▪ Al-Baghdadi, Abu Mansur ‘Abd al-Qahir b. Tahir (d. 429/1037–8)
▪ Bahmanyar, Abu’l-Hasan (d. 468/1067)
▪ Bahmanyar, Abu’l-Hasan (d. 468/1067)
▪ Al-Balkhi, Abu al-Qasim (al-Ka‘bi) (d. 319/931)
▪ Al-Balkhi, Abu Zayd (c. 235–322/849–934)
▪ Al-Banjari, Muhammad Arshad (1122–1233/1710–1818)
▪ Al-Banna’, Hasan (1906–49)
▪ Al-Basri, Abu’l Husayn (d. 436/1044)
▪ Bedreddin, Şeyh (1358–1416/759–819)
▪ Birgivi, Takiyuddin Mehmet (928–81/1522–73)
▪ Al-Biruni, Abu Raihan Muhammad (362–440 or 453/973–1048 or 1061)
▪ Bishr Ibn Al-Mu‘Tamir, Abu Sahl (d. 210/825)
▪ Al-Bistami, Abu Yazid (161–234/777–848)
▪ Bosnevi, Abdullah (992–1054)/1584–1644)
▪ Bostanzade Yahya Efendi (d. 1049/1639)
▪ Bursevi, İsmail Hakki (1063–1137/1653–1725)
▪ Çelebi, Katib Mustafa ibn ‘Abdullah (1017–67/1609–57)
▪ Cevdet, Abdullah (1869–1932)
▪ Al-Dabbagh (d. 696/1296)
▪ Al-Dashtaki, Sadr al-Din (d. 903/1497–8)
▪ Davud, Abdulahad (1866–1930)
▪ Al-Dawwani, Jalal al-Din Muhammad ibn As‘ad (830–908/1426–1502)
▪ Dhu’l-Nun Al-Misri, Abu al-Fayd Thawban b. Ibrahim (180–245/796–859)
▪ Djozo, Hüseyin Efendi (1330–1402/1912–82)
▪ Ebussuud Efendi, Mehmed (896–982/1490–1574)
▪ Enayetpuri, Khwaja (1886–1951)
▪ Ertuğrul, İsmail Fenni (1855–1946)
▪ Esat Efendi, Yanyali (d. 1722 or 1730)
▪ Al-Falimbani, ‘Abdul Samad (c. 1116–1254/c. 1704–1838)
▪ Fansuri, Hamzah (c. tenth/sixteenth century)
▪ Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr (c. 258–c. 339/c. 871–c. 950)
▪ Farghani, Ahmad ibn M. ibn Katir (third/ninth century)
▪ Al-Farghani, Sa‘id al-Din (seventh/thirteenth century)
▪ Al-Farisi, Kamal al-Din (c. 658–c. 720/1260–c. 1320)
▪ Al-Fatani, Dawud (c. 1183–1263/c. 1770–1847)
▪ Fenari, Molla (750–834/1350–1431)
▪ Al-Firuzabadi, Muhammad b. Yaqub (729–817/1328–1414)
▪ Al-Fuwati, Hisham ibn ‘Amr (third/ninth century)
▪ Gaspirali, Ismail (1851–1914)
▪ Gelenbevi, İsmail (1143–1205/1730–91)
▪ Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid (451–504/1058–1111)
▪ Gökalp, Ziya (1876–1924)
▪ Gölpinarli, Abdulbaki (1317–1402/1900–82)
▪ Guénon, René (1886–1951)
▪ Günaltay, M. Şemseddin (1883–1961)
▪ Haci Paşa (c. 740–827/c. 1339–1424)
▪ Ha’Iri-Yazdi, Mehdi (1923–99)
▪ Al-Hallaj, Abu al-Mughith al-Husayn (244–309/857–922)
▪ Hamadani, Mulla Husayn-qali (c. 1268–1332 or 1337/c. 1850–1915 or 1920)
▪ Al-Hamadhani, ‘Ayn al-Qudat (492–525/1098–1131)
▪ Hamka (1326–1401/1908–81)
▪ Al-Harawi, ‘Abdullah Ansari (396–481/1006–89)
▪ Harputi ‘Abdullatif (1258–1334/1842–1916)
▪ Hayreddin Paşa of Tunis (1820 or 1825–89)
▪ Hayrullah Efendi (1820–66)
▪ Al-Helmy, Burhanuddin (1329–89/1911–69)
▪ Hidaji, Akhund Mulla Muhammad (1270–1314/1853–97)
▪ Al-Hilli, ‘Allama (648–726/1250–1325)
▪ Al-Hindi, Rahmat Allah (d. 1306/1888)
▪ Hisham B. Al-Hakam, Abu Muhammad (d. after 186/802)
▪ Hocazade (Muslihiddin Mustafa) (1434–88)
▪ Hüdayi, ‘Aziz Mahmud (948–1038/1541–1628)
▪ Al-Hudhayl, Abu’l Hudhayl al-‘Allaf (c.135–235/c.752–850)
▪ Husayn, Taha (1889–1973)
▪ Husayni, Shah Tahir b. Radi al-Din (d. c. 956/1549)
▪ Ibn ‘Abd Al-Wahhab, Muhammad (1115–1206/1703–92)
▪ Ibn Abi Usaybi‘a, Muwaffaq al-Din (c. 590–668/c. 1194–1270)
▪ Ibn ‘Abidin, Ahmad b. ‘Abdulghani (1238–1307/1823–89)
▪ Ibn Abi’l-Khayr, Abu Sa‘id Fadlullah (967–1049)
▪ Ibn ‘Abjiba, Abu’l-‘Abbas ibn Muhammad (c. 1160–1/1740 or 1747)
▪ Ibn Al-‘Arabi, Muhyiddin (560–638/1165–1240)
▪ Ibn Al-‘Arif, Abu’l ‘Abbas Ahmad (481–536/1088–1141)
▪ Ibn Al-Athir, Abu al-Fath (558–637/1163–1239)
▪ Ibn ‘Ata’, Wasil (80–131/699–748)
▪ Ibn Bajja, Abu Bakr al-Sa’igh (470–533/1077–1139)
▪ Ibn Barrajan, Abu’l-Hakam (sixth/twelfth century)
▪ Ibn Battuta, Abu ‘Abd Allah (d. 770/1368–9 or 779/1377)
▪ Ibn Al-Daya, Ahmad Ibn Yusuf (third/ninth century)
▪ Ibn Al-Farid, ‘Umar ibn ‘Ali Abu’l-Qasim al-Misri al-Sa‘di (576–632/1181–1235)
▪ Ibn Faris, Abu’l-Husayn (308–395/920–1004)
▪ Ibn Faris, Abu’l-Husayn (308–395/920–1004)
▪ Ibn Furak, Abu’l Hasan (c. 330–406/c. 941–1015)
▪ Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad (164–241/780–855)
▪ Ibn Al-Haytham, Abu ‘Ali al-Hasan (354–430)/965–1039)
▪ Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad (384–456/994–1064)
▪ Ibn Al-Jawzi, Abu al-Faraj ‘Abd al-Rahman (c.511–97/c.1116–1201)
▪ Ibn Juljul (332–after 384/944–after 994)
▪ Ibn Kammuna, Sa‘d ibn Mansur (d. 682/1284)
▪ Ibn Karram, Muhammad (c.190–255/806–68)
▪ Ibn Kemal (873–940/1468–1534)
▪ Ibn Khaldun (732–808/1332–1406)
▪ Ibn Khallikan, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (608–81/1211–82)
▪ Ibn Masarra, Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah (269–319/883–922)
▪ Ibn Maytham, ‘Ali (d. after 183/799)
▪ Ibn Al-Muqaffa‘ (d. 137/755 or 139/756)
▪ Ibn Al-Nafis, ‘Ali ibn Abi al-Haram (607–87/1210–88)
▪ Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (691–751/1292–1350)
▪ Ibn Al-Qifti, Jamal al-Din (d. 646/1248)
▪ Ibn Qurra, Thabit (211–88/836–901)
▪ Ibn Al-Rawandi (d. c. 910)
▪ Ibn Rushd, Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad (520–95/1126–98)
▪ Ibn Sab‘in, Abu Muhammad ‘Abd al-Haqq b. Ibrahim (614–69/1217–70)
▪ Ibn Sina, Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn ‘Abd Allah (370/980–428/1037)
▪ Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi al-Din (661–728/1263–1328)
▪ Ibn Tufayl, Abu Bakr Muhammad (d. 581/1185)
▪ Ibn Turka (d. 835/1432)
▪ Idris ‘Imad Al-Din, Sayyid (794–872/1392–1468)
▪ Al-Idrisi (493–c.555/1099–c.1162)
▪ Al-Iji, ‘Adud al-Din (c.700–756/c.1300–55)
▪ Ikhwan Al-Safa’
▪ İleri, Celal Nuri (1882–1936)
▪ Iqbal, Muhammad (1289–1356/1873–1938)
▪ Iranshahri, Abu’l-‘Abbas Muhammad (fourth/tenth century)
▪ Al-Isfahani, Abu Nu‘aym (d. 430/1038)
▪ Al-Isfahani, al-Raghib (d. 502/1108)
▪ İzzet, Mehmet (1891–1930)
▪ Al-Jahiz (d. 255/868)
▪ Jahm Ibn Safwan (d. 128/745)
▪ Al-Jawaliqi, Hisham b. Salim (d. after 183/799)
▪ Al-Jilani, ‘Abd al-Qadir (470–562/1077–1166)
▪ Al-Jili, ‘Abd al-Karim (c. 1366–1408 or 1417)
▪ Jilwah, Mirza Abu’l-Hasan (1238–1314/1822–96)
▪ Al-Junayd, Abu al-Qasim (215–296 to 298/827–908 to 910)
▪ Junpuri Faruqi, Mulla Mahmud (1015–62/1603–52)
▪ Al-Jurjani, ‘Abd al-Qahir (d. 471/1078 or 474/1081)
▪ Al-Jurjani, ‘Abd al-Qahir (d. 471/1078 or 474/1081)
▪ Jurjani, Mir Sayyid Sharif (b. 740/1339)
▪ Juwayni, Imam al-Haramayn (419–78/1028–85)
▪ Kam, Ömer Ferit (1280–1363/1864–1944)
▪ Al-Kashani, Afdal al-Din (c. 1006–90/1598–1679)
▪ Al-Kayseri, Dawud (658–751/1260–1350)
▪ Khayyam, Omar (c. 1048–c. 1122)
▪ Al-Kharakani, Abu’l-Hasan (d. 425–1033)
▪ Al-Kho’i, Ayatullah al-Uzma Sayyid Abul-Qasim (1317–1413/1899–1992)
▪ Al-Khwarizmi, Abu Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Musa (early third century/c. 780–850)
▪ Al-Kindi, Abu Yusuf Ya‘qub ibn Ishaq (185–252/801–66)
▪ Kirmanshahi, Aqa Mirza Muhammad Hasan (d. 1336/1918)
▪ Konuk, Ahmet Avni (1871–1938)
▪ Al-Kubra, Abu’l Jannab Ahmad ibn ‘Umar Najm al-Din (540–617/1145–1220)
▪ Kuşçu, Ali (d. 879/1474)
▪ Lahbabi, Muhammad Aziz (1922–93)
▪ Lahiji, ‘Abd al-Razzaq (d. 1072/1662)
▪ Larijani, Aqa Sayyid Radi (d. 1270/1853–4)
▪ Al-Lawkari, Fadl b. Muhammad (d. 517/1123–4)
▪ Al-Ma‘Arri, Abu’l ‘Ala’ (363–449/973–1058)
▪ Al-Malati, Abu ’l-Husayn (d. 337/987)
▪ Al-Maqassari, Muhammad Yusuf (1036–1110/1626–99)
▪ Mardini, Fakhraddin (512–94/1118–98)
▪ Al-Marwazi, al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali (d. after 306/918)
▪ Al-Mas‘udi, Abu al-Hasan (c.283–345/896–956)
▪ Maturidi, Abu Mansur (c. 247–333/c. 861–944)
▪ Al-Mawardi, Abu’l Hasan (364–450/974–1058)
▪ Al-Mawdudi, Sayyid Abul A’la (1903–79)
▪ Al-Mawsili (c. third–fourth centuries/tenth century)
▪ Mir Damad (950–1041/1543–1631)
▪ Mir Fath Allah Shirazi (d. 998/1590)
▪ Miskawayh, Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ahmad ibn Muhammad (c. 320–421/c.932–1030)
▪ Mu‘Ammar Al-Sulami (d. 215/830)
▪ Al-Mu’ayyad Fi’l-Din Shirazi (c. 390–470/999–1077)
▪ Al-Mubarrad, Abu’l ‘Abbas (d. c. 286/900)
▪ Al-Mubashshir (fifth/eleventh century)
▪ Mudarris, Aqa ‘Ali (1234–1307/1818–89)
▪ Al-Muhasibi, Abu ‘Abdillah al-Harith (c. 165–243/c. 781–857)
▪ Mulla ‘Abd Allah Zunuzi Tabrizi (d. 1257/1841)
▪ Mulla Gürani (813–93/1410–88)
▪ Mulla Sadra (c. 979–1050/c. 1571–1640)
▪ Münif Paşa, Mehmet Tahir (1828–94 or 1910)
▪ Mustafa Ali (948–1008/1541–1600)
▪ Mutahhari, Murtaza (1920–79)
▪ Al-Nabulusi, ‘Abd al-Ghani (1050–1143/1641–1731)
▪ Al-Nadim, Abu’l Faraj (c. fourth/tenth century)
▪ Al-Najjar, al-Husayn b. Muhammad (d. 220/835)
▪ Nasafi, Abu’l-Mu‘in (c.438–508/c.1046–1115)
▪ Nasir-I Khusraw (394–470 or 481/1004–77 or 1088)
▪ Al-Naysaburi, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim (fl. early fifth/eleventh centuries)
▪ Al-Nazzam (c. 145 to 150–230/c. 760 to 765–845)
▪ Neoplatonist Philosophy, Influence Of
▪ Al-Nisaburi, al-Fadl ibn Shadhan (d. 260/874)
▪ Al-Nu‘man, Al-Qadi (d. 363/974)
▪ Nursi, Said (1294–1379/1877–1960)
▪ Qashqa’i, Jihangir Khan (1243–1327/1827–1909)
▪ Qazwini, Sayyid Abu’l-Hasan (1315–96/1897–1975)
▪ Quhistani, Abu Ishaq (ninth/fifteenth century)
▪ Al-Quhistani, Hakim Nizari (645–721/1247–1321)
▪ Qumsha’i, Muhammad Rida (1241–1306/1825–88)
▪ Qunawi, Sadr al-Din (605–73/1207–74)
▪ Al-Qushayri, Abu’l-Qasim ‘Abdulkarim ibn Hawazin (376–465/986–1072)
▪ Qutb, Sayyid (1906–66)
▪ Rabi‘a Al-‘Adawiyya Al-Qaysiyya (95 or 99–185/714 or 717–801)
▪ Raghib Pasha, Mehmed (1111–76/1699–1763)
▪ Rahman, Fazlur (1919–88)
▪ Al-Raniri, Nur al-Din (d. 1068/1658)
▪ Al-Razi, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya’ (c. 250–313 or 323/c. 854–925 or 935)
▪ Razi, Abu Hatim (d. 322/934)
▪ Al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din (543–606/1149–1209)
▪ Rida, Rashid (1865–1935)
▪ Al-Rumi, Jalal al-Din (604–72/1207–73)
▪ Sabahattin, Prens (1293–1367/1877–1948)
▪ Sabbah, Hasan (d. 518/1124)
▪ Sabri Efendi, Mustafa (1869–1954)
▪ Sabuni, Nur al-Din (d. 580/1184)
▪ Al-Sabzawari, Al-Hajj Mulla Hadi (1212–89/1797–1873)
▪ Said Halim Paşa (1863–1921)
▪ Sana’i, Majdud ibn Adam al-Ghaznawi (d. 525/1131)
▪ Al-Sarakhsi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad (400–83/1009–90)
▪ Semnani, ‘Ala’ al-Dawla (659–736/1261–1336)
▪ Al-Sha‘Arani, ‘Abd al-Wahhab ibn Ahmad (c. 898–973/c. 1493–1565)
▪ Shabistari, Mahmud (d. after 1340)
▪ Al-Shadhili, Abu’l Hasan (c. 583–656/c. 1187–1258)
▪ Al-Shafi‘i, Muhammed ibn Idris (150–204/767–819)
▪ Shah ‘Abd Al-Rahim (1056–1131/1646–1718)
▪ Shah Muhammad (992–1072/1584–1661)
▪ Al-Shahrastani, Abu’l Fath (c. 479–548/c. 1087–1153)
▪ Shahrazuri, Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Mahmud (d. after 687/1288)
▪ Shariati, Ali (1933–77)
▪ Shaykh Mufid (338–413/949–1022)
▪ Al-Shirazi, Qutb al-Din (634–710/1236–1311)
▪ Al-Sijistani, Abu Sulayman (c. 320–91/c. 932–1000)
▪ Sijistani, Abu Ya‘qub (Late fourth/tenth, early fifth/eleventh)
▪ Al-Singkili, ‘Abd al-Ra’uf (c.1024–1105/1615–93)
▪ Al-Sirafi (279 or 289–368/892 or 902–79)
▪ Sirhindi, Ahmad (971–1034/1563–1624)
▪ Siyalkoti, Mulla ‘Abd al-Hakim (d. 1067/1656)
▪ Al-Suhrawardi, Abu Hafs (539–632/1145–1234)
▪ Al-Suhrawardi, Abu’l Najib (c. 490–563/c. 1097–1168)
▪ Al-Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din (549–87/1154–91)
▪ Al-Sulami, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman (325–412/937–1021)
▪ Al-Suyuti (849–911/1445–1505)
▪ Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (c.224–314/c.839–923)
▪ Tabataba’i, ‘Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn (1321–1402/1904–81)
▪ Al-Taftazani, Sa‘d al-Din (722–93/1322–90)
▪ Al-Tahawi, Abu Ja‘far (239–321/853–933)
▪ Al-Tahtawi, Rifa‘a Rafi‘ (1801–73)
▪ Taşköprüzade (901–68/1495–1561)
▪ Al-Tawhidi, Abu Hayyan (c. 315–414/c. 927–1023)
▪ Topçu, Osman Nurettin (1909–75)
▪ Tusi, Nasir al-Din (597–672/1201–74)
▪ Ubeydullah Efendi, Mehmet (1858–1937)
▪ Ülken, Hilmi Ziya (1901–74)
▪ Wali Allah, Shah (Qutb al-Din ibn Ahmad al-Rahim) (1114–76/1703–62)
▪ Yalçin, Hüseyin Cahit (1292–1377/1875–1957)
▪ Yesevi, Ahmed (c. 1093–1166)
▪ Yunus Ibn ‘Abd Al-Rahman, Abu Muhammad (d. 208/823)
▪ Zurara Ibn A‘Yan, Abu al-Hasan (d. c. 150/767)