By Hakeemul Islam Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi رَحِمَهُ ٱللَّٰهُ
Protection of Animal`s Rights in Islam
“The camel complains that you overload him.”He replied, “O, Prophet, it is right. I am sorry to commit such a bad deed. Now I repent and shall never repeat the same.”( Abu Daud)
“Why do you rob their freedom and hurt their mothers?”(Abu Daud)
The Prophet ﷺ said, “Will you not break the promise, will you?”The deer replied, “I swear, I shall keep my word”
Rights of Djinns
Djinns too live in this world having basic rights to food, shelter and security, which nobody can deny them. The way they live in desolate and deserted places, they have right to live in our houses too. Ahadith tell us that djinns live in every house. We do not perceive them because they mind their own business and do not interfere with ours, and when a wicked one of them creates troubles in our lives, we say that this home or person is possessed and consult an exorcist who imprisons or burns the troublesome djinns with his exorcism. However, we are allowed to stand against and even fight with djinns, in case they persist in their wickedness.
Various Religions of Djinns
As for the pious and Muslim djinns, we need not to worry about driving them out of our houses; rather their strength and goodness may come helpful for us. However, wickedness and trouble making is not tolerable even of human beings let aside of djinns.
It is a fact that djinns include all types of individuals: good and bad; Muslims and pagans; Jews and Christians as Qur’an clearly points out.
Before the prophethood of Muhammad ﷺ, djinns were allowed to go up near the doors of the heaven and eavesdrop on a few Diving words from angles’ conversation. Then back down on earth, they would pass on those words with lots of fabrications and concoctions to their followers and they fooled common folk claiming that they knew the future. When after the prophethood of Muhammad ﷺ they got banned from climbing up to heaven, they grew anxious to know the main reason which restricted their eavesdropping. Some of the djinns undertook to find out the actual reason for the restriction. They roamed around from east to west and north to south. A few of them happened to pass by the Makkah city and heard Prophet Muhammad ﷺ reciting the Glorious Qur’an. Hearing such unique, unprecedented and impressive words, they understood that it was the guidance that restricted their transgression. They went away and informed their brethren:
“Verily, we have heard a wonderful Recitation. It guides to the Right Path and we have believed therein” (this Qur`an)”
(Al –Djinn, 72: 1, 2)
It shows that they were disbelievers, who later accepted Islam. Thus, there emerged two categories of them; Muslims and non-Muslims.
More they said:
“And we shall never join in worship anything with our Lord (Allah).”
(Al –Djinn,72: 2).
It indicates that some of them were monotheists and some polytheists.
Further it was said:
“And He, exalted is the Majesty of our Lord, has taken neither a wife nor a son (for offspring or children).”
(Al –Djinn,72: 2).
This tells that some of them were Christians, who believed that Allah Almighty has wife and son.
More, they said:
“And that the foolish among us(i.e.Iblis or the atheists among the djinn) used to utter against Allah that which was an enormity in falsehood.”
This verse clearly establishes that some of them, out of their foolishness,were habitual of attributing their false ideas to Allah and spread a set of lies on the name of religion and revelation.
From the above paragraphs, it has been proved that there are various sects and religions among djinns; but still their basic rights are intact. All that could be done is to punish wrongdoers as in human cases, but their rights cannot be denied. There is even a juristic debate if humans and djinns can intermarry.
Some jurists allow intermarriage between humans and djinns arguing with the fact that djinns are as sensible as humans and equally governed by the Islamic Shariah and its commandments. Moreover they can take human appearance too.
While some others, looking at the fact that marriage is permissible only between those who are genetically similar, deny it and say that marriage between djinn and human is like marriage between goat or cow and human being, which is not allowed, as partners are genetically dissimilar.
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Preachingto Djinns
It is narrated in a Hadith that once a delegation of djinns from Naseebeen came to Messenger of Allah, Muhammad ﷺ and requested,
“O messenger of Allah! A group of our brothers has assembled in a place, you are cordially requested to come over there and deliver some wise words and let us know commandments related to us as well as answer some of our queries”.
The Prophet ﷺ went there with Abdullah Ibn Masood رضي الله عنه.When the Prophet ﷺ reached the foothill where djinns were assembled, he drew a circle and said to Abdullah Ibn Masood رضي الله عنه to stay within it.
Abdullah Ibn Masood رضي الله عنه reports that he saw peculiar people passing by the circle but unable to enter, though their voices were heard. The Prophet ﷺ delivered to them words of wisdom and taught Islamic commandments; one among them was that humans should avoid using bone to purify themselves after responding to natural call, because bones serve as provision for djinns. Violation of their rights to livelihood, therefore, gets prohibited, as a Hadith says that when humans take meat off bones and throw out, djinns get them full of meat. The Hadith also states that humans used bones for purifying themselves after attending the natural call. Djinns complained about it to Prophet ﷺ and he prohibited its use for this purpose. All this insures the protection of djinns’ rights and we are not allowed to interfere with them. Likewise, it is unlawful to remove them from their abode unless they cause trouble.
The same is the case with angels too. They too have rights and live in this world, with some in heavens and some on the earth. According to a prophetic narration, there is not even a little place in the heaven where angels do not exist and worship. Heavenly angels are different from those who live on the earth; their abode is where they live and it is forbidden to push them out. For example, angels like fragrance and dislike bad smell. Thus, it is desirable to perfume the environment and purify the place where angels assemble from bad smell. Therefore it is Islamically recommended to burn incense in mosques so the angels feel at ease, and forbidden to enter there after having something that stinks.
A Hadith says that angels pray for people sitting in a mosque as long as they do not pass wind. The moment they nullify their ablution angels stop praying, because they feel uncomfortable and turn their face, as though we, doing so, displace them; while we have no right to discomfort them.
It is narrated in a Hadith that when somebody lies, it brings about an unpleasant odour which forces angels away from the place, as if, a liar causes angels to run away. Nobody has right to disturb them and occupy their place when they are on duty, but it is quite fair to cast those nasty ones out, who deserve not to come in the holy places, such as Satan runs away hearing the Adhaan, the call for Salah and he should be cast out.
Angels feel at ease with Allah’s names. So to stop uttering them is like snatching what they feed on, and would be as much unlawful as to trouble them with mean words or actions. Like humans and animals, angels too enjoy rights to be protected with care.
The fourth sensible creature is human being living on the surface of the earth that is home for animals, djinns, angels and humans altogether. Allah Almighty has conferred on him the rights and privileges in various terms he enjoys, like right to livelihood, accommodation, freedom etc. Treatment with a kind of creature is different from that of another. For example, animals receive no Divine address, no commandment and no list of do’s and don’ts; because they are not wise enough to understand the Divine address and what little brain they have, is sufficient only to fulfill their personal basic requirements like food, shelter and other necessities. They value only minimum needs and limited personal interests and have no understanding of the larger purpose that benefits them as a whole.
Creation of Animals
There may crop up a question,“Had animals got wisdom, what might have gone wrong?” Following sentence answers it. The purpose animals have been created to meet requires no wisdom; instead it hampers the fulfillment of the purpose. The purpose of their creation has been encapsulated in the following verse:
“And cattle He has created for you (men) from them you drive warmth and numerous benefits, and of their (meat) you eat. You have a sense of pride and beauty in them as you drive them home in the evening, as you lead them forth to pasture in the morning”.
So you weave warm, woolen cloths and blankets out of animal fur. There are multiple benefits in their skin as it may be used as covering, bed sheet or for decoration or making tents to live in. And of their meat you eat. You use their meat as provision. With these animals, you add to your status and reputation and make a show of it. You use them in the processions at special events, be it national, official or of family. With expensive saddles, luxurious howdahs and golden cradles set on the back of horses, elephants, camels and mules, you come out with pomp and splendor and put forth extravagant display of your rank and position.
“And they carry your loads to a city where you were not able without putting yourselves to arduous labor.”
( An-Nahal,16: 7 )