Plan and Creation of the Universe

Plan and Creation of the Universe

By Hakeemul Islam Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi  رَحِمَهُ ٱللَّٰهُ

Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi was an Indian Islamic scholar. He was the Principal of Darul Uloom Deoband from 1929 to 1981. He was the grandson of Shaykh Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi رَحِمَهُ ٱللَّٰهُ, the founder of the Darul Uloom Deoband. 
 
In a nutshell, Allah Almighty created the universe in the form of a marvelous building and a magnificent castle, wherein He provided with conducive environment to live, work, sleep, eat, drink and all that man needs to do. With such a unique design and special structure, the world itself proclaims that, undoubtedly, this home equipped with all necessities of life has been meant to be inhibited by a person in need. It is self-evident that home in itself is not the main objective; rather it is built up for someone to settle down. And again it is not built for an ordinary settler, but for the one who can potentially exhaust the life resources found here in abundance, and tidy up the place making a mark of his presence; for a home without residents is no less than a desolate place. When we observe the happenings and actions taken on purpose in the world, we conclude that the sensible and wise creatures living in the world can be categorized only into four types.
 

Sensible Creatures

1. There are animals with hundreds of species like horse, ass, ox, goat, parrot, starling, lion, wolf, snake, scorpion, beasts and birds etc.
 
2. Djinns, the creature invisible to mankind, but perceivable through the traces. On the racial ground, they are divided into clans and tribes.
 
3. Angels, who, being heavenly and ethereal, cannot be seen; but are perceivable through traces and have nothing to do with gender and reproduction.
 
4. There are human beings living in every part of the globe and busy with their lives.
 
Only these four types of creatures have been given a certain level of sensibility according to their natural frame designed by the Divine will, and deserve to be worthy successors and rightful residents of this worldly abode. They enjoy rights conferred on them by the Lord of the universe. Nobody is entitled to deny them their rights. They have full freedom to manage whatsoever required in life, like food, house, clothes and other accessories essential for a smooth living. Preferences and requirements may differ as per the natural bent of the creature. If somebody anyhow tries to deny due rights of others, no doubt, he is a culprit and deserves penalty.
 

Protection of Animal`s Rights in Islam

Islamic Shariah has well taken care of animal rights the same way as it has protected human rights. It is narrated in a Hadith that once a camel came to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ crying bitterly with tears rolling down. The camel put its head at the foot of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and kept on crying. The Prophet ﷺ called its owner and said,
 
“The camel complains that you overload him.”
 
He replied, “O, Prophet, it is right. I am sorry to commit such a bad deed. Now I repent and shall never repeat the same.”
 
( Abu Daud)
 
Some Companions of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ caught nestlings while their mothers were hovering overhead fretfully. The Prophet ﷺ got them freed and said,
 
“Why do you rob their freedom and hurt their mothers?”
 
(Abu Daud)
 
Prophetic tradition has forbidden urinating near a hole, because there might be living an insect or worm and you cause discomfort to it. Such guidance goes in favour of both, you and insects; on your part the avoidance of possible harm caused by the insect in response to discomfort; and on the insects’ part the avoidance of disturbance and spoiling their abode, which you have no right to do.
 
One day Prophet Muhammad ﷺ went out of Madinah. He saw a deer roped to a hook in a villager’s house. The deer cried as she saw the Prophet ﷺ and said that the villager caught her and her fawns were wailing because of hunger and requested the Prophet ﷺ to free her for a while, so that she could suckle her fawns.
 
The Prophet ﷺ said,  “Will you not break the promise, will you?”
 
The deer replied, “I swear, I shall keep my word”
 
The deer came back as promised, and the Prophet ﷺ fastened her with rope again. Later the Prophet ﷺ related the story to the villager and recommended him to set the deer free. He set her free. Leaping in happiness, she joined her fawns in hills with a word of blessing for the Prophet ﷺ.
 
(Abu Daud)
 
 
The story makes it abundantly clear that Prophet ﷺ has taken care of everyone’s right. Considering the maternal affection of deer and the state of fawns, he untied the rope so that the deer does not get hurt as fawns die out of hunger, and fawns do not lose life. And taking the human rights into account, he roped the deer again to make it a point that humans enjoy the right to catch wild animals and domesticate or use them, and nobody can interfere with this right.
 
If we analyze the story from another viewpoint, it teaches us to keep our promise. When an animal is asked to be true to his word, wise human being is much more expected to keep his word, and also makes clear that if truth leads to deliverance for animals, as the deer got freedom, why it should not entail salvation for human being in both the world and Hereafter.
 
Islamic jurists write, there must be grazing grounds in the countryside devoted for domesticated and working animals where they can graze freely, enjoying their right to food and freedom.
 
Good natured and gentlemen always take care of animal rights. Moulana Miyan Asghar Hussain رَحِمَهُ ٱللَّٰهُ‎  the rector of Darul Uloom Deoband always had small pieces of bread left on roofs after having meal taking it as birds’ right and had little particles of food put near the holes for ants, for it is a right of the poor and tiny insects.
 
Prophetic traditions tell us that it is unlawful to hurt and annoy any animal. A pious woman had been thrown into hell only because she imprisoned a cat and did not care about its food and water, which led to the cat`s death. On the other hand, a prostitute had been sent into heaven only because she saved the life of a dying thirsty dog by quenching its thirst. The detail is available in the books of Ahadith.
 
Islamic Shariah advised not to slaughter an animal before another animal of the same kind, lest it goes wild in panic after seeing its sister specie being slaughtered.
 
Animals too have right to live in peace and freedom and have proper sustenance and shelter. We are bound to protect their rights and prohibited to do anything that infringes upon their rights. However, if there is an animal is feral and causes unrest, it may be imprisoned or killed. Behold, this treatment is no way particular with animals. If a human being poses a threat to society, he is also either sentenced or executed as per the severity of crime; so the rest may live with a sense of security. Therefore, dangerous animals like snake and scorpion are not given refuge even in Haram, and we are advised to kill such animals before they bring any harm. But such treatment does not affect animal rights anyhow.
 

Rights of Djinns

Djinns too live in this world having basic rights to food, shelter and security, which nobody can deny them. The way they live in desolate and deserted places, they have right to live in our houses too. Ahadith tell us that djinns live in every house. We do not perceive them because they mind their own business and do not interfere with ours, and when a wicked one of them creates troubles in our lives, we say that this home or person is possessed and consult an exorcist who imprisons or burns the troublesome djinns with his exorcism. However, we are allowed to stand against and even fight with djinns, in case they persist in their wickedness.

 

Various Religions of Djinns

As for the pious and Muslim djinns, we need not to worry about driving them out of our houses; rather their strength and goodness may come helpful for us. However, wickedness and trouble making is not tolerable even of human beings let aside of djinns.

It is a fact that djinns include all types of individuals: good and bad; Muslims and pagans; Jews and Christians as Qur’an clearly points out.

Before the prophethood of Muhammad ﷺ, djinns were allowed to go up near the doors of the heaven and eavesdrop on a few Diving words from angles’ conversation. Then back down on earth, they would pass on those words with lots of fabrications and concoctions to their followers and they fooled common folk claiming that they knew the future. When after the prophethood of Muhammad ﷺ they got banned from climbing up to heaven, they grew anxious to know the main reason which restricted their eavesdropping. Some of the djinns undertook to find out the actual reason for the restriction. They roamed around from east to west and north to south. A few of them happened to pass by the Makkah city and heard Prophet Muhammad ﷺ reciting the Glorious Qur’an. Hearing such unique, unprecedented and impressive words, they understood that it was the guidance that restricted their transgression. They went away and informed their brethren:

“Verily, we have heard a wonderful Recitation. It guides to the Right Path and we have believed therein” (this Qur`an)”

(Al –Djinn, 72: 1, 2)

It shows that they were disbelievers, who later accepted Islam. Thus, there emerged two categories of them; Muslims and non-Muslims.

More they said:

“And we shall never join in worship anything with our Lord (Allah).”

(Al –Djinn,72: 2).

It indicates that some of them were monotheists and some polytheists.

Further it was said:

“And He, exalted is the Majesty of our Lord, has taken neither a wife nor a son (for offspring or children).”

(Al –Djinn,72: 2).

This tells that some of them were Christians, who believed that Allah Almighty has wife and son.

More, they said:

“And that the foolish among us(i.e.Iblis or the atheists among the djinn) used to utter against Allah that which was an enormity in falsehood.”

(Al–Djinn,72: 3).

This verse clearly establishes that some of them, out of their foolishness,were habitual of attributing their false ideas to Allah and spread a set of lies on the name of religion and revelation.

From the above paragraphs, it has been proved that there are various sects and religions among djinns; but still their basic rights are intact. All that could be done is to punish wrongdoers as in human cases, but their rights cannot be denied. There is even a juristic debate if humans and djinns can intermarry.

Jurists’ Discussion

Some jurists allow intermarriage between humans and djinns arguing with the fact that djinns are as sensible as humans and equally governed by the Islamic Shariah and its commandments. Moreover they can take human appearance too.

While some others, looking at the fact that marriage is permissible only between those who are genetically similar, deny it and say that marriage between djinn and human is like marriage between goat or cow and human being, which is not allowed, as partners are genetically dissimilar.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Preachingto Djinns

It is narrated in a Hadith that once a delegation of djinns from Naseebeen came to Messenger of Allah, Muhammad ﷺ and requested,

“O messenger of Allah! A group of our brothers has assembled in a place, you are cordially requested to come over there and deliver some wise words and let us know commandments related to us as well as answer some of our queries”.

The Prophet ﷺ went there with Abdullah Ibn Masood رضي الله عنه.When the Prophet ﷺ reached the foothill where djinns were assembled, he drew a circle and said to Abdullah Ibn Masood رضي الله عنه to stay within it.

Abdullah Ibn Masood رضي الله عنه reports that he saw peculiar people passing by the circle but unable to enter, though their voices were heard. The Prophet ﷺ delivered to them words of wisdom and taught Islamic  commandments; one among them was that humans should avoid using bone to purify themselves after responding to natural call, because bones serve as provision for djinns. Violation of their rights to livelihood, therefore, gets prohibited, as a Hadith says that when humans take meat off bones and throw out, djinns get them full of meat. The Hadith also states that humans used bones for purifying themselves after attending the natural call. Djinns complained about it to Prophet ﷺ and he prohibited its use for this purpose. All this insures the protection of djinns’ rights and we are not allowed to interfere with them. Likewise, it is unlawful to remove them from their abode unless they cause trouble.

Angels` Rights

The same is the case with angels too. They too have rights and live in this world, with some in heavens and some on the earth. According to a prophetic narration, there is not even a little place in the heaven where angels do not exist and worship. Heavenly angels are different from those who live on the earth; their abode is where they live and it is forbidden to push them out. For example, angels like fragrance and dislike bad smell. Thus, it is desirable to perfume the environment and purify the place where angels assemble from bad smell. Therefore it is Islamically recommended to burn incense in mosques so the angels feel at ease, and forbidden to enter there after having something that stinks.

A Hadith says that angels pray for people sitting in a mosque as long as they do not pass wind. The moment they nullify their ablution angels stop praying, because they feel uncomfortable and turn their face, as though we, doing so, displace them; while we have no right to discomfort them.

It is narrated in a Hadith that when somebody lies, it brings about an unpleasant odour which forces angels away from the place, as if, a liar causes angels to run away. Nobody has right to disturb them and occupy their place when they are on duty, but it is quite fair to cast those nasty ones out, who deserve not to come in the holy places, such as Satan runs away hearing the Adhaan, the call for Salah and he should be cast out.

Angels feel at ease with Allah’s names. So to stop uttering them is like snatching what they feed on, and would be as much unlawful as to trouble them with mean words or actions. Like humans and animals, angels too enjoy rights to be protected with care.

Human Rights

The fourth sensible creature is human being living on the surface of the earth that is home for animals, djinns, angels and humans altogether. Allah Almighty has conferred on him the rights and privileges in various terms he enjoys, like right to livelihood, accommodation, freedom etc. Treatment with a kind of creature is different from that of another. For example, animals receive no Divine address, no commandment and no list of do’s and don’ts; because they are not wise enough to understand the Divine address and what little brain they have, is sufficient only to fulfill their personal basic requirements like food, shelter and other necessities. They value only minimum needs and limited personal interests and have no understanding of the larger purpose that benefits them as a whole.

Creation of Animals

There may crop up a question,“Had animals got wisdom, what might have gone wrong?” Following sentence answers it. The purpose animals have been created to meet requires no wisdom; instead it hampers the fulfillment of the purpose. The purpose of their creation has been encapsulated in the following verse:

“And cattle He has created for you (men) from them you drive warmth and numerous benefits, and of their (meat) you eat. You have a sense of pride and beauty in them as you drive them home in the evening, as you lead them forth to pasture in the morning”.

( An-Nahal,16:5-6)

So you weave warm, woolen cloths and blankets out of animal fur. There are multiple benefits in their skin as it may be used as covering, bed sheet or for decoration or making tents to live in. And of their meat you eat. You use their meat as provision. With these animals, you add to your status and reputation and make a show of it. You use them in the processions at special events, be it national, official or of family. With expensive saddles, luxurious howdahs and golden cradles set on the back of horses, elephants, camels and mules, you come out with pomp and splendor and put forth extravagant display of your rank and position.

“And they carry your loads to a city where you were not able without putting yourselves to arduous labor.”

( An-Nahal,16: 7 )