Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi رَحِمَهُ ٱللَّٰهُ
Once the Muslims were inspired, they quickly burst the bounds of Arabia and threw themselves zealously into the task of the fuller mission of human destiny. Their leadership held a guarantee of light and happiness for the world; it gave the promise of turning humanity into a single, divinely-guided society. Some of the characteristics of Muslim leadership were as follows.
The Muslims had the unique advantage of being in possession of the Divine Book (Qur’an) and the Sacred Law (SharfCah). They did not have to rely on their own judgement regarding the vital questions of life, and were thus saved from the manifold difficulties often inherent in such a course. The Divine Word had illumined for them all the avenues of life and had enabled them to progress towards a destination which they clearly envisaged. It was not merely a case of trial and error. Says the Holy Qur’an:
Can he who was dead, to whom We gave life and a Light
iohereb» he can walk amongst men, be like him who is in
the depths (if darkness [rom which he can never come out?
They were to judge men on the basis of the Revealed Word; they were not to diverge from the dictates of justice and equity; their view was not to be blurred by enmity, hatred or the desire for revenge.
o ye who believe, stand out firmly for God iE witnesses
tofair dealino, and let not the hatred of others to you make
you stileI’ve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just;
that is nearer to piety; and fear Cod, for God is wellacquainted unth. all that ye do.
They did not suddenly leap to power from the abysmal depths of degradation through just their own efforts. The Qur’an had already moulded them into shape. They had been brought to a high level of nobility and purity by the Prophet ﷺ through long years of unremitting care. The Prophet ﷺ had conditioned them to a life of
austerity and righteousness; he had instilled into their hearts the virtues of humility and courageous self-denial; he had purged them dean of greed and of striving after power, renown or wealth. It was laid down by him as a fundamental principle of Islamic polity that: “We shall not assign an office under the government to anyone who makes a request for it, or shows his longing for it in any other way.”115
The Muslims were as far removed from falsehood, arrogance and mischief as white is from black. The following words of the Holy Qur’an had not been ground into them night and day in vain:
That Horne of the Hereafter liVe shall ~ive to those who
intend Hot high-han.dedness or mischiei’ on earth; and the
End is (best) for the righteous.
Instead of aspiring to positions of authority and trust, they accepted them with great reluctance and when they did accept an official position they accepted it as a trust from God, to whom they would have to render a full account of their sins of omission and commission on the Day of Judgement. Says the Holy Qur’an:
God doth command you to render back your trusts to
those to whom they are due; and when ye judge
between marl and man, that ye judge with justice.
It is He Who hath made you (His) vicegerents on the
earth. He hath raised you in Yanks, some above
others; that He might try you in the gifts ye receive;
for th}’ Lord is quick in punishment, yet He is indeed
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Further, the Muslims were not agents of any particular race or country, nor did they want to establish Arab Imperialism. Their mission was a universal mission of faith and freedom. They were happily free from all the sickly obsessions of colour and territorial nationality. All men were equal. The Holy Qur’an pointedly said:
o mankind, We created you from (a single pair of) a
male and a female; and made you into nations and tribes,
that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise
each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the
sight of God is (he who is) the most ri.~hteous of you.
And God has full knowledge and is Well-Acquainted (with all things).
Once the son of’ Amr ibn al-‘As, the Governor of Egypt, struck an Egyptian commoner with a whip. The matter was brought to the notice of Caliph ‘UIllar. The Caliph did not show the least regard for the high status of the offender’s father, and ordered the Egyptian straightaway to avenge himself for the harm done to him. To the offender’s father he administered this telling rebuke, “Why have you made them slaves while they were born free?” 116
The Arabs were not mean-spirited in making the benefits of faith, culture and learning available to non-Arabs. They did not care for the nationality or family connections of the recipients when it came to the conferment of high honours and positions in the State. They were, so to speak, a cloud of bliss that rained ungrudgingly over the entire world, and from which all peoples, everywhere, freely profited according to their own capacity. 117
The Arabs allowed a free and equal partnership to all nations in the establishment of a new, socio-political structure and in the advancement of mankind towards a fuller and richer moral ideal. There were no national divisions, no apartheid, no vested interests, no priesthood and no hereditary nobility in the Islamic Commonwealth. No special benefits were reserved for anyone. There was nothing to prevent the non-Arabs from surpassing the Arabs in the various fields of life. Even as doctors of Hadith 118 and Fiqh 119 a number of non-Arabs attained to distinction for which the Muslims in general and the Arabs in particular feel proud. Ibn Khaldun writes:
“It is an amazing fact of history that though their religion is of Arabian origin and the Law that
the Prophet ﷺ had brought had an Arab complexion, with a few
exceptions, all eminent men of learning in the Muslim Millat, in the
field of theological as well as secular sciences, are non-Arabs. Even
those who are Arabs by birth are non-Arabs by education, language and
During the later centuries, too, non-Arab Muslims continued to produce leaders, statesmen, saints and scholars of exceptional merit. This would obviously not have been possible had the Arabs been mean or prejudiced in sharing their opportunities with the people of other nationalities in the Islamic world.
Humanity has many sides: physical, emotional, social, moral, mental and spiritual. We cannot neglect one for the benefit of another. Humanity cannot progress to its highest level unless every human instinct is brought into play. It would be futile to hope for the establishment of a healthy human society until an intellectual, material, moral and spiritual environment is created in which a man is able to develop his latent potential in harmony with God’s plan of creation.
We learn from experience that tins goal must remain a dream so long as the reins of civilization are not held by those who attach due importance to both the material and the spiritual yearnings of life, and can, besides having a high moral and spiritual sense, fully appreciate the claims of flesh and blood upon man and the inter-relationship between the individual and society.
Any defect in the integration of the material and spiritual elements in the inner nature of a people should be displayed inevitably in its entire social outlook and organization. Thus, if a community that believes only in one side of life – material progress – and is unaware of its spiritual side and the transcendental realities such as resurrection and futurity, acquires ascendancy over the world, civilization will manifest itself in material objects such as brick, stone, paper, doth, steel and lead; it will revolve around law-courts, battlefields, factories, ball-rooms, hotels, clubs and theatres and flourish and grow rich there. But on the domestic side, and in the domain of morality and the other spheres of human life, there will be no difference between man and beast. In short, civilization will be like the corpulent body which may give the impression of well-being at first sight, but, in reality, is the victim of innumerable ailments.
Similarly, if a community that repudiates temporal interests and stands for the negation of the self, cherishing only the things of the spirit, comes into power, the natural potential of man will be stunted and civilization will wither away. Under its influence, people will renounce the world and become hermits. They will prefer celibacy to matrimonial life, and the life of caves and forests to that of towns and cities. Self-torture will become the highest form of religious exercise so that the hold of the body over the soul might weaken, and the spirit of man might be “purified”. Death will gain superiority over life as through it mankind would be saved from the tumult of the “world of matter” and gain access to the tranquillity of the “world of spirit” and complete their spiritual progress.
TIns philosophy of life being opposed to the natural scheme of things, whenever such a society comes into being, the spirit of man docs not fail to react violently against it soon after the first flush of enthusiasm is over, and to avenge itself by rushing madly towards the other extreme of vulgar material enjoyment and debauchery.
Very few communities that had the privilege to act as the torchbearers of civilization during the various epochs of history could succeed in establishing a harmonious equilibrium between the temporal and the spiritual, between the body and the spirit, between the mind and the senses. Generally speaking, they were either crudely materialistic or plainly hermit in their mental and spiritual attitudes, and this kept mankind deviating most of the: time between the two opposite ends of materialism and monasticism.
Uniqueness of the Companions
The Companions of the Holy Prophet ﷺ were unique in the sense that religion, morality, social dynamism, politics, (i.e. all the diverse requirements of a civilized society) were mirrored in the most beautiful colours in their lives. There was no schism, no corroding lack of integration in their souls. Because of this, they were ideally suited to operate as stewards of humanity. We, consequently, find that no period in the recorded history of the human race has been more auspicious in its true sense than what is known among the Muslims as Khilafal« Rdshidali (i.e. the reign of the first four Caliphs). During this epoch, all the material, moral and spiritual resources of man were brought into use to make him. an ideal citizen of an ideal State. The Government was judged by the yardstick of morality, and morals were judged by their utility to lift humanity in permanent values and establish justice in human society. Though the Islamic Commonwealth was the richest and the most powerful State of its time, the popular heroes and ideal personalities in it were drawn from among those who possessed not earthly glory, but purity and nobility. There was no disparity between power and morality. Material advancement was not allowed to overrun moral progress – that is why in the Islamic world the incidence of crime was very low in spite of the abundance of wealth and the great
heterogeneity of its population. In short, this epoch was the most beautiful springtime mankind has experienced to this day.
All this was due to the moral strength of faith, excellence and the training of those who were at the helm of affairs in the Muslim State. In whatever capacity they served the State, they conducted themselves as the most perfect models of Islamic morality. Whether as administrators or petty officials, or as soldiers or policemen, they performed their duties with exemplary modesty, justice and piety.
The sterling character and qualities of the Muslim soldiers were once praised by a Roman officer in these words: “At night you will find them prayerful; during the day you ‘will find them fasting. They keep their promises, order good deeds, suppress evil and maintain complete equality among themselves.” 121
Another testified thus: “They are horsemen by day and ascetics by night. They pay for what they eat in territories under their occupation. They are first to salute when they arrive at a place and are valiant fighters who just wipe out the enemy. “122
A third said: “During the night it seems that they do not belong to this world and have no other business than to pray, and during the day, when one sees them mounted on their horses, one feels that they have been doing nothing else all their lives. They are great archers and great lancers, yet they are devoutly religious and remember God so much and
so often that one can hardly hear talk about anything else in their company. “123
It was because of this moral training that when the fabulous Crown and the “Carpet of Spring” of the Chosroes of Iran fell into the hands of Muslim soldiers after the victory of Mada’in, they promptly delivered them to their Commander, who dispatched them to the Caliph at Madinah. When the latter saw those articles, he was filled with admiration for the great integrity of the soldiers who had handed them over to their leader intact and for those who had brought them safely all the way to Madinah. 124
The Islamic View of Life
Islam alone, of all religions, embraces life in all its aspects. It does not stand as a barrier between man and his legitimate desire for a full life. It does not regard man’s earthly existence as a collection of gloomy sorrows or a punishment for some original or inherited sin. At the same time, it does not look upon this life as a fleeting opportunity for material satisfaction or a place for sensuous delight. Islam proclaims life to be a Divine gift so that man may attain nearness to God and attain perfection by making full use of the possibilities of his body and spirit. It is an opportunity for action to make the best of oneself; there is not going to be another opportunity after it. Says the Holy Qur’an:
He Who created Death and Lift, that He may try which of you is best in deed.
al-Mulk 67: 2
That ‘which is on earth We have made but as a glittering show for it in order that We may test them – as to
which of them are best in conduct.
The Companions of the Prophet ﷺ considered this universe as the domain of God in which He had raised them in the first instance as human beings and then as Muslims to serve as His Vicegerents and the guardians of those who dwelt in it. The Holy Qur’an says:
I will create a Vicegerent on earth.
It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on the earth.
We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for
sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of Our Creation. al-Isra’ 17:70
God has promised to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion – the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived), to one of security and peace; they will worship Me (alone) and associate none with Me. al-Nur 24:55
God had granted mankind the right to enjoy the resources of the earth without being foolish, vain or wasteful:
Eat and drink – but waste not by excess, for God lovet not the wasters.
Say: who hath forbidden the beautiful! gifts of God,
which He hath produced for His servants, and the things,
clean and pure, which He hath provided for sustenance?
Say: they are, in the life <if this world, for those who
believe, (and) purely for them on the Day of Judgement.
The Muslims have been appointed the shepherds of mankind. It is their religious duty to keep humanity on the straight path, to remove imperfections from human society, to defend the weak and to establish justice and peace on the earth. Says the Holy Qur’an:
Ye are the best people raised up for mankind,
enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong,
and believing in God.
Al ‘Imran 3:110
o ye who believe, stand out firmly for justice and be the witnesses of God to fair dealing.
Muhammad Asad admirably summed up the Islamic concept of life as a well-balanced harmonious totality, which cannot be divided nor separated into the physical and spiritual: ” … If Islam does not share the gloomy aspect of life as expressed by Christianity, it teaches us, nonetheless, not to attribute an exaggerated value to the earthly life as the modern Western civilization does. The Christian outlook is: The earthly life is a bad business. The modern West – as distinct from Christianity – adores life in exactly the same way as the glutton adores his food; he devours it, but has no respect for it. Islam, on the other hand, looks upon the earthly life with calmness and respect. It does not worship life, but regards it as a passing stage on our way to a higher existence. But just because it is a stage, and a necessary stage, too, man has no right to despise or even to underrate the value of his earthly life. Our travel through this world is a necessary, positive part in God’s Plan. Human life, therefore, is of tremendous value; but we must never forget that it is a purely instrumental value. In Islam, there is no room for the materialistic optimism of the modern West which says:
“My kingdom is of this world alone” – nor for the life-contempt of the Christian: “My kingdom is not of this world.”
Islam goes the middle way. The Holy Qur’an teaches us to pray:
Our Lord, give us the good in this world and the good in the Hereajier.
“Thus, the full appreciation of this world and its goods is in no way a handicap for our spiritual endeavours. Material prosperity is desirable, though it is not a goal in itself The goal of all our practical activities always ought to be the creation and maintenance of such personal and social conditions as might be helpful for the development of moral stamina in men. In accordance with this principle, Islam leads man towards a consciousness of moral responsibility in everything he does, whether great or small. The well-known injunction of the gospel:
‘Give Caesar that which belongs to Caesar, and give God that which belongs to God’
– has no room in the theological structure of Islam, because Islam does not allow of differentiation between the moral and the practical requirements of our existence. In everything, there can be only one choice: the choice between Right and Wrong – and nothing in-between. Hence, the intense insistence on the action as an indispensable element of morality. Every individual Muslim has to regard himself as personally responsible for all happenings around him and to strive for the establishment of Right and the abolition of Wrong at every time and in every direction.
“The sanction for this attitude is to be found in the verse of the Holy Qur’an:
Ye are the best people raised up for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in God.
Al ‘Imran 3:110
“This is the moral justification of the aggressive activism of Islam, the justification of the early Islamic conquests and its so-called ‘Imperialism’. For Islam is ‘Imperialist’, if we must use this term; but this kind of Imperialism is not prompted by love of domination; it has nothing [to do] with economic or national selfishness, nothing [to do] with the greed to increase our own comforts at other people’s cost, nor has it ever meant the coercion of non-believers into the belief of Islam. It has only meant, as it means today, the construction of a worldly frame for the best possible spiritual development of man. Moral knowledge, according to the teachings of Islam, automatically forces a moral responsibility upon man. A mere Platonic discernment between Right and Wrong, without the urge to promote the Right and to destroy the Wrong, is a gross immorality in itself. In Islam, morality lives and dies with the human endeavour to establish its victory upon earth.” 125
The Effects of the Rise of Muslim Power
The rise of Muslim power and the coming of age of the Islamic civilization during the first century of the Hijrah were events of unequalled significance in man’s moral and social development. These events confronted the “World of Ignorance” with a crisis of unprecedented magnitude. So tar Islam was no more than a religious movement, hut henceforth it emerged as a complete civilization – refined, progressive and full of energy and life.
Henceforth, there were two opposite systems in the world: one a comprehensive, easy-to-understand, practical, revealed Faith; the other a rigmarole of rigid formalism, conjecture, superstition and myth.
The superior society of Islamic ideology was envisaged and brought to life on solid spiritual foundations. Its real emphasis was not on material prosperity but on the development of moral stamina in men and on the metaphysical orientation of life. The soul of man was, as such, free from contradictions within its framework. It was content. There was no greed, no insatiable longing for worldly power or riches. The government stood firmly for equity and equality and held itself as much responsible for the moral and spiritual prosperity of its people as for the protection of their lives and property. Its governors and administrators were also the finest citizens of the Islamic State; the most exalted ascetics were often found among those who had the greatest opportunities of indulging in comfort and luxury of all kinds.
In contrast with the social soundness and spiritual vigour of the Islamic World was the avarice, confusion, and vulgarity of the “World of Ignorance”, where everyone in authority seemed desperately resolved upon taking full advantage of their position of power.
Islam and Humanity
This being the case, people felt no hesitation in leaving the realm of Ignorance for the Light of Islam. They stood to lose nothing, and there was everything to be gained. Islam offered to them the balm of belief, the sweetness of faith, the membership of a democratic, cosmopolitan society – a society without any kind of distinction – and the protection of a powerful State. The expansion of the frontiers of Islam was, quite naturally, very rapid.
The effects of the growth of Islamic power were extremely far-reaching. The path of Godliness became easy to take. Until recently to obey the commands of God was a most perilous thing; now the reverse was true. It was no longer necessary to preach the message of faith in secret. Says the Holy Qur’an:
Call to mind when ye were a small (band) despised
through the land, and afraid that men might despoil and
kidnap you; but He provided a safe asylum for you,
strengthened you with His aid, and gave you good
things for sustenance that ye might be grateful.
The Revival of Humanity
Those who had entered the fold of Islam could now exert themselves more effectively for the moral and spiritual revival of humanity. They could establish right and prohibit wrong with much greater success. The rejuvenating currents of Islam ran through the world, infusing men everywhere with a new life and an unparalleled enthusiasm for progress. The lost values of life had been rediscovered. Paganism became a sign of reaction, while it was considered progressive to be associated with Islam. Even nations that did not come directly under the influence of Islam benefited profoundly, though unconsciously, from the freshness and vitality of the new creative impulses released by its impact on large parts of the world. Numerous aspects of their thought and culture bear evidence to the magic touch of Islam. All the reform movements that arose in their midst owed their origin to Islamic influences.
A universal gift of Islam to humanity was the re-establishment of man’s belief in the Unity of God. So uncompromisingly and so energetically did the Muslims espouse the doctrine of Monotheism that even the Trinitarians and the worshippers of idols had to offer apologies and excuses for their ideas on religion and for their modes of worship.
Islam and Christianity
Formerly, Christians used to be shocked at the mention of the idea of Divine Unity and exclaim:
Has he made the gods all into one God? Truly this is a wonderful thing!
Holy Qur’an, Sa’d 38:5
Now they took pains to explain that their beliefs and practices did not contravene the belief in the Oneness of God. There appeared a number of sects among the Christians who denied the Divinity of Jesus and explained the doctrine of Trinity in a way that brought them within the orbit of Monotheistic teachings. The belief that clergymen acted as intermediaries between man and God was also severely criticized by Christian reformers and ultimately given up. A movement was started in Europe in the eighth century against the practice of making confessions before priests. It was asserted that man should address himself directly to his Maker, without the aid of an intercessor. In addition, a feeling of revulsion was created throughout Christendom, with the support of powerful Roman Emperors such as Leo Ill, Constantine V and Leo IV, against paintings and statues in churches. Emperor Leo III issued a decree in 726 CE prohibiting the adoration of images. In 730 CE he proclaimed the arts of painting pan sculpture to be the remnants of Paganism. This new development in the very heart of the Graceo-Roman cultural zone was indisputably an echo of the message of Islam that had reached Europe through Spain. Claudius, one of the pioneers of the movement, had been born and brought up in Muslim Spain.126 It was his custom to set fire to any image or painting that was found in his diocese. The Reformation itself, in spite of all its shortcomings, was inspired by Islam.
Islam and Europe
It was not, however, in the field of religion alone that Islam imparted a new glow of life to Europe. There is not a single area of European revival that is not indebted to Islamic thought. As Robert Briffault said:
For although there is not a single aspect of European
growth in which the decisive influence of Islamic
civilization is not traceable, nowhere is it so clear and
momentous as in the genesis of that power which
constitutes the permanent distinctive force of the modern
world and the supreme source of its victory – natural
science and scientific spirit. 127
Science is the most momentous contribution of Arab
Civilization to the modern world …It was not science
only which brought Europe back to life. Other and
manifold influences from the civilization of Islam
communicated its first glow to European life. 128
Islam and India
The contribution of Islamic civilization to the culture of the different people of India has also been of great importance. Many progressive features in the socio-cultural structure of the different Indian communities, such as respect for women and their rights, can be traced to the influence of Islam through various channels. It can be safely claimed that after the dawn of Islam no cultural or religious system in the world can honestly deny its indebtedness to Islam and Muslims.
Islam’s Influence in Times of Decadence
Several characteristics of the Muslim faith and civilization continued to operate even after the huge Islamic social structure had begun to disintegrate, one of these being belief in God. Islam had planted the idea of God so firmly in the minds of its followers that the passage of time could do no harm to it. The followers of Islam could indulge in immorality – as they wholeheartedly did during the period of their decline – but it was just not possible for them to shake off their belief in God. The moral sense of right and wrong, faith in the Omnipresence of the Almighty, and the solicitude for the After-life would pinch their hearts in the midst of their follies and, sometimes, it would instantly transform their lives. Not infrequently did it happen that people abandoned their wicked ways and took to a life of piety in response to a sudden call of the conscience. A simple heavenly warning would in a moment stir princes to renounce their kingdoms and turn into ascetics, while we see daily that warnings a thousand times more severe fail to make any impression on spiritually frozen hearts. Often, on hearing a Quranic verse like the following, the people suddenly felt that they had woken up to a new life:
Has not the time arrived for the Believers that their
hearts in all humility should engage the remembrance
of God and of the Truth which has been revealed (to them),
and that they should not become like those to whom was given
Revelation afore time, but long ages passed over them and their
hearts grew hard, for many among them are rebellious transgressors?
Such incidents were common in the seminaries of religious leaders in Baghdad, even when that city had slipped into moral stupor. It has been reported by Ibn Jubair al-Andalusi that people used to weep during the sermons of Shaikh Radiyyuddin Qazwini and they swarmed around him to ask about God’s forgiveness of their sins.
During tbe sermons of Hafiz Ibn al-jawzi, “people cried and fainted and had to be carried away. They would give their forelocks in his hands (a sign of submission) and he would caress their heads” .129
According to his own estimate, around a hundred thousand people repented at his hand.130 At the sermon assemblies of Shaikh Isma’il Lahori , an Indian Traditionist of the 5th century AH, it is stated that thousands embraced Islam.131
Ibn Batutah has enumerated numerous incidents of a like nature in connection with the achievements of
Muslim missionaries in India.
To conclude, the language of Islam had gained free currency in the language of the world. Modes of expression peculiar to Islam were widely used by non-Muslims. Many non-Muslim scholars learnt the Qur’an by heart. Abu Ishaq the Sabian, one of the most celebrated nonMuslim calligraphists and literateurs of his age, is reputed to have observed the Ramadan fasts.
People traveled from one end of the Islamic world to the other, across forests, mountains and rivers, in search of spiritual guides. The saints and those of the spiritual path were the refuge of the world. Their dwelling places were overcrowded with devotees and sparkled with life more than the palaces of the high dignitaries of the State. The sermon assemblies of Shaikh ‘Abdul Qadir Jilani inspired greater awe than the courts of the ‘Abbasid Caliphs.
115 Bukharl and Muslim.
116 Ibn al-Jawzi, Sira ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab,
117 It is related by Abu Musa Ash’ari that the Holy Prophet ﷺ once said, “The message with which God
has sent me into the world can be compared to a heavy shower of rain that fell over a vast stretch of land.
Part of this land was soft and smooth and it absorbed the rain and was turned into a meadow; part of it was
uneven and hard and it retained the water which proved to be of great benefit to mankind; people drank it
themselves and gave it to others to drink; part of it was altogether flat and barren, which could neither retain the water nor grow anything. The first two instances apply to those who drank in the Divine message to their own advantage and to the advantage of their fellow-beings, while the last one refers to those who paid no heed to what God had revealed to me” – Bukhari, Kitab-ul-ilm.
118 The Traditions of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ (Translator),
119 Islamic Jurisprudence (Translator) .
120 Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah, P-499·
121 Ahmad ibn Marwan Maliki, Kitiib-ul-Mujalasah.
122 Ibn Kathir, al-Bidsvah wa/’Nihiiyah, Vol.VII, P.53
123 Ibid., p. r. 8
124 Ibn al-jawzl, Sirah Umar ibn alKhaudb.
125 Muhammad Asad (Leopold Weiss), Islam at the Crossroads (Lahore, 1955), pp.26-9·
126 Ahmad Amin, Darul Islam.
127 The Making of Humanity, P.190.
128 Ibid., p.202.
129 Ibn Jubair, P.302.
130 Ibn al-Jawzi, Saydul-Khatir.
131 Tadhhkirul-‘ Ulama’