Who is Allah سبحانه وتعالى ?

Who is Allah سبحانه وتعالى ?

Imām Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl al-Ashʿarī (d. 324/936) said:


God is one, there is nothing like him;

He is not a body, nor object, nor volume, nor form, nor flesh, nor blood, nor person, nor substance, nor attributes.

He has no color, taste, smell, touch, heat, cold, moistness, dryness, length, breadth, depth, union, distinction, movement, rest or partition.

Neither is He provided with parts, divisions, limbs, members, with directions, with right or left hand, before or behind, above or beneath.

No place en-compasses Him, no time passes over Him.

Contiguity, withdrawal and incarnation cannot be conceived about Him.

He cannot be described by any attribute, which are applicable to creatures, in so far as they are created, neither can it be said that He is finite.

He cannot be described by measure, nor by movement in a direction.

He is neither circumscribed, nor begetting nor begotten; measures do not encompass Him, nor do veils cover Him.

The senses do not grasp Him, nor can man describe Him by any analogy.

He does not resemble the creatures in any way.

Neither accidents nor detriment can touch Him.

Whatever occurs to any mind or is conceived by imagination cannot resemble Him (wa-kullu mā khaṭara bi- al-bāli wa-taṣawwara bi-al-wahmi fa-ghayra mushabbihin lahu).

He is ceaselessly the first, and the foremost, He is the one who preceded created things and existed before the creation.

He has not ceased to be knowing, deciding, living, nor does He cease to be so.

Eyes do not perceive Him, and vision does not penetrate Him.

He cannot be conceived by imagination, nor can He be heard by ears.

He is a being, but is not like other beings; knowing, deciding, living, unlike those who measure living beings by their knowledge.

He is alone eternal, and there is none eternal besides Him (innahu al-qadīmu waḥdahu wa-lā qadīmun ghayrihi).

There is no deity other than Him. He has no partner in His rule, and no sharing in His sovereignty.

There is none who assists Him in producing what He produces and in creating what He creates.

He has not created the creation on a preceding pattern.

The creation of one thing is neither more easy nor more difficult to Him than the creation of any other thing (wa laysa khalqu shayʿin bi-ahwan ʿalayhi min khalqi shayʿin ākhar wa la biaṣʿabi ʿalyhi minhu).

There is no kind of relation between Him and what provides benefit; no harm can touch Him; neither joy nor pleasure can reach Him; neither pain nor sufferings can touch Him.

There is no limit set to make Him finite.

He will never cease to exist and He is not subject to any weakness and deficiency.

He is exalted above touching women, and taking a companion and having children.❞

• al-Ashʿarī, Maqālāt, 155–56.

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